Athenaze Book 1 – Chapter 10α

Vocabulary
Chapter Instructional Videos & Audio Recordings

Vocabulary

This is all of the vocabulary contained in this lesson. It includes all of the vocabulary words from the vocabulary list, most (if not all) of the vocabulary supplied for the story, and a few additional but logically relevant words. Click on the buttons to hear words pronounced. Hover your cursor over them to see a gloss. Review the vocabulary until you can say the gloss for each word without help.

Chapter Instructional Videos & Audio Recordings

Listen to the Chapter Story

Keep reviewing until you can understand the passage as it is read without looking at the text. Don’t expect to understand the passage just by listening without plenty of practice. Be patient, work hard, and have fun.

Listen to the Chapter Story With Grammatical Commentary

Sometimes the grammar and forms within the story can be a little confusing. In this MP3 John Schwandt reads the story and comments on grammatical structure and forms. Make sure that you have tried to understand the story on your own before listening to this commentary. It is helpful to mark any words that you had difficulty with so the commentary will be more meaningful in your education. It is important that you don’t simply assent to what is said in the commentary. After you work through the story with the commentary work through it again on your own. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF YOUR HOMEWORK. If you cannot make it through on your own, work through the commentary again and then try again. Eventually, you should be able to understand the story without helps. Be sure to get so familiar with the story that you can understand the story being read at speed.

Chapter Grammar Lecture

After you have translated the story and then have listened to it many times (This means starting, stopping, and reviewing each phrase until you can understand the entire story just by listening to it.), Watch this video containing conversation questions in Greek regarding the story. Work through the questions by starting and stopping the recordings until you can ask and answer questions on your own. Then the video contains a lecture on the grammar presented in the lesson.

Watch the Grammar Lesson Video
10A Grammar Lesson

Flash card advice

You can read more about this Anki flashcard deck with pictures and audio at the materials page.

Lesson Content

Emphasized Items of the Chapter (Both Sections A and B) – students should be very familiar with content of these general items:

  1. The family visits the festivals with a plot twist at the end.
  2. Finish reading episodes from Odysseus’s adventures.

Caption Under the First Picture:

Students should be able to deduce the tense of ὑμνήσει. The root meaning of the word is quite similiar to the English derivative, “hymn” (Notice the rough breathing.)

Verb Chart

Atelic non-indicative forms and the present (indicative) tense is formed by connecting a verb "root" with the first principal part stem (ο/ε) and primary tense endings. (Note: Athenaze normally refers to "root" as "stem" and then doesn’t have a consentent term to refer to principal part stems. I think it is best to distinguish these three verb elements.)

The future tense is formed by connecting a verb "root" with the second principal part stem (σο/ε) and primary tense endings. (Note: the only morphological difference between the present and future indicative is a sigma.)

Comparison Chart between Present forms and Future froms

Present forms

1st Principal Part Stem

(ο/ε)

Future forms

2nd Principal Part Stem

(σο/ε)

A
C
T
I
V
E

V
O
I
C
E

Indicative Active

person & number
root
stem
ending
I
λυ-
ω
you (sg.)
λυ-
εις
he/she/it
λυ-
ει
we
λυ-
ο
μεν
you (pl.)
λυ-
ε
τε
they
λυ-
ουσι

Infinitive

person & number
root
stem
ending
anyone
λυ-
ειν

Nominative Sg. Participles

gender
root
stem
(ο + ντ)
ending
Masc.
λυ-
ων
Fem.
λυ-
ουσα
Neut.
λυ-
ο
ν

Indicative Active

person & number
root
stem
ending
I
λυ-
σω
you (sg.)
λυ-
σεις
he/she/it
λυ-
σει
we
λυ-
σο
μεν
you (pl.)
λυ-
σε
τε
they
λυ-
σουσι

Infinitive

person & number
root
stem
ending
anyone
λυ-
σειν

Nominative Sg. Participles

gender
root
stem
(σο + ντ)
ending
Masc.
λυ-
σων
Fem.
λυ-
σουσα
Neut.
λυ-
σο
ν
M
I
D
D
L
E

V
O
I
C
E

Indicative Middle/Passive

person & number

root

stem

ending

I

λυ-
ο
μαι
you (sg.)
λυ-
ει (ῃ)
he/she/it
λυ-
ε
ται
we
λυ-
ο
μεθα
you (pl.)
λυ-
ε
σθε
they
λυ-
ο
νται

Infinitive

person
root
stem
ending
anyone
λυ-
ε
σθαι

Nominative Sg. Participles

gender
root
stem
ending
Masc.
λυ-
ο + μεν
ος
Fem.
λυ-
ο + μεν
η
Neut.
λυ-
ο + μεν
ον

Indicative Middle/Passive

person & number
root
stem
ending
I
λυ-
σο
μαι
you (sg.)
λυ-
σει (ῃ)
he/she/it
λυ-
σε
ται
we
λυ-
σο
μεθα
you (pl.)
λυ-
σε
σθε
they
λυ-
σο
νται

Infinitive

person
root
stem
ending
anyone
λυ-
σε
σθαι

Nominative Sg. Participles

gender
root
stem
ending
Masc.
λυ-
σο + μεν
ος
Fem.
λυ-
σο + μεν
η
Neut.
λυ-
σο + μεν
ον

Passive Voice is the same as the Middle in the 1st Principal Part Future Passives forms are not generated from the 2nd Principal Part.

The tricky part about Greek is learning how to anticipate how various verb roots will combine with each stem (principal part form). Verb roots can be catagorized by their final letter (the letter that will combine with the stem letter.) There are six types of verb roots (All roots ending with one of these types of letters).

  1. Noble Roots (Close Vowels)
  2. Contract Roots
  3. Bilabial Roots
  4. Dental Roots
  5. Gutteral (Velar) Roots
  6. Liquid Roots (λ, μ, ρ, ν – Liquids and Nasals)

Noble Roots

Tip: Regular in all principal part:

      • λύω, λύσω
      • ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι
      • δακρύω, δακρύσω

Noble Roots (Close Vowels) (ι, υ, ου) do not contract with any other vowels or consonants. That is why λύω is the word we use in our paradigms. With close vowel roots we can clearly see unaltered stems for each principal part. We can also anticipate all of the principal parts for verbs with close vowel roots.

Contract Roots

Tips:

  • 1st Principal Part: Contract Vowel combines with the stem variable vowel.
  • 2nd Principal Part:
    • Lengthen the Contract Vowel prior to the sigma in the stem.
      • φιλέω, φιλήσω
      • ἡγέομαι, ἡγήσομαι
      • τιμάω, τιμήσω
      • νικάω, νικήσω
      • βοάω, βοήσομαι
    • A few contract verbs don’t lengthen their contract vowel
      • καλέω, καλέσω
      • θεάομαι, θεάσομαι

There are three contract vowels (ε, α, ο). Verbs that have roots ending in one of these vowels are called contract verbs. These vowels will contract in regular patterns with other vowels. Thankfully, the first principal part is only stem that begins with a vowel and will generate a contraction. All of the the other principal part stems begin will consonants and will not contract (but the contract vowel will typically lengthen). This makes contract verbs quite regular (except for the first principal part).

Bilabial Roots

Tips:

  • 1st Principal Part: No change
  • 2nd Principal Part:
    • (β, π, φ) + σ = ψ
      • βλέπω, βλέψομαι
      • πέμπω, πέμψω
      • γράφω, γράψω
    • The same is true when a dental follows the bilabial (bilabial + dental + sigma) = ψ
      • κόπτω, κόψω

There are three bilabials (β, π, φ). Verbs that have roots that end with a bilabial will combine with the the sigma in the 2nd principal part stem to form psi. Also any dental that follows a bilabial will drop out prior to the sigma in the 2nd principal part stem allowing the bilabial and sigma to form psi.

Dental Roots

Tips:

  • 1st Principal Part: No change
  • 2nd Principal Part:
    • (δ, τ, θ, ζ) drop out prior to σ
      • σπεύδω, σπεύσω
      • πείθω, πείσω
      • παρασκευάζω, παρασκευάσω
      • θαυμάζω, θαυμάσομαι
    • Dentals with roots that end in (ιζω) will look like a present epsilon contract verb (The sigma dropped out instead of the dental since an epsilon was inserted to separate the root from the sigma. The intervocalic zeta [also a sibalent] also dropped.) (κομίζω → κομιζέσω (added ε) → κομιέω (sibalents drop)→ κομιῶ (ε contracts with ending)
      • κομίζω, κομιῶ
      • κομίζομαι, κομιζοῦμαι
      • βαδίζω, βαδιῶ

There are three dentals (δ, τ, θ) and ζ which is a dental sibalent. Verbs that have roots that end with one of these dentals will drop their dental prior to the the sigma in the 2nd principal part stem leaving the sigma untouched. The exception to this is when some dentals will look like a present epsilon contract verb (The sigma dropped out instead of the dental since an epsilon was inserted to separate the root from the sigma. Sometimes this creates an intervocalic zeta [also a sibalent] that will also drop.) (κομίζω → κομιζέσω (added ε) → κομιέω (sibalents drop)→ κομιῶ (ε contracts with ending).

Gutteral Roots

Tips:

  • 1st Principal Part: No change
  • 2nd Principal Part:
    • (γ, κ, χ, ττ) + σ = ξ
      • λέγω, λέξω (or different root liquid ἐρῶ)
      • διώκω, διώξομαι
      • φυλάττω, φυλάξω
      • δέχομαι, δέξομαι
      • ἔχω, ἔξω (or different root epsilon contract σχήσω)
      • φεύγω, φεύξομαι

There are three gutterals (γ, κ, χ) and double tau (ττ) which will act like a gutterl prior to sigma. Verbs that have roots that end with one of these letters will combine with the the sigma in the 2nd principal part stem to form χ.

Liquids

Presented in section 10b